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Code-only Controls

This kind of controls is useful when you need to render a piece of HTML and/or you need to support data-binding and manipulate with the viewmodel.

Building code-only controls is more difficult, but they can do much more things. All controls built-in DotVVM are implemented as code-only controls.

If you want to learn about how to write controls in DotVVM, we encourage you to look in the GitHub repository how the built-in controls are implemented.

Control Registration

First, you need to register the code-only control in the DotvvmStartup.cs file.

config.Add(new DotvvmControlConfiguration() 
    TagPrefix = "cc",
    Namespace = "DotvvmDemo.Controls",
    Assembly = "DotvvmDemo"

Using this code snippet, if you use the <cc: tag prefix, DotVVM will search for the control in the specified namespace and assembly.

If you register a markup control with code behind like this, it won't work. If the control has a markup, it must be registered using the AddMarkupControl method.


All controls in DotVVM derive from DotvvmControl class. This base class provides only basic functionality and it is not a good base class to inherit directly for most purposes.

The most useful class to be derived from is HtmlGenericControl. It is prepared to render one HTML element (which can contain child elements of course). Most built-in controls in DotVVM derive from HtmlGenericControl class.

Creating Code-only Control

The best example to learn how to write controls in DotVVM is to look how the built-in controls are implemented. Let's begin with the TextBox.

The textbox in HTML (with Knockout JS binding) looks like this:

<input type="text" data-bind="value: FirstName" />

This is what we'd like to render when we see <dot:TextBox Text="{value: FirstName"}" />.

So let's create a class that derives from HtmlGenericControl. In the constructor, we call the base constructor and tell the name of the HTML element - in our case we want input.

public class TextBox : HtmlGenericControl
    public TextBox() : base("input")


This would render just <input></input> in the page. Also, if you add any custom attributes (e.g. style, class) on the TextBox control, it would append them in the page. The HtmlGenericControl takes care about all this stuff for you.

Rendering Pipeline

Now, the HtmlGenericControl has 4 methods which we can override to modify the rendered HTML. They are called in this order:

  • AddAttributesToRender - by default, this method takes all HTML attributes set to the control, and prepares them to be rendered.

  • RenderBeginTag - by default, this method renders the begin tag.

  • RenderContents - by default, this method renders the child controls.

  • RenderEndTag - by default, this method renders the end tag.


Now, let's see how to render the HTML element. In DotVVM, we use the HtmlWriter to generate HTML. To render the <input type="text" /> we need to call something like this:

    writer.AddAttribute("type", "text");

There are also methods RenderBeginTag("input"), RenderEndTag(), WriteText("some text") or WriteUnencodedText("some HTML").

The AddAttribute method is called before rendering the tag and it also has a third argument called append. If you call AddAttribute("class", "blue") and then AddAttribute("class", "red", true), the class will be appended.

The HtmlWriter knows that values in the class HTML attribute are separated by spaces, values in the style attribute by semicolons etc. You can also specify your own separator character as the fourth argument.

Rendering HTML

Let's continue with the TextBox class. We don't want to render begin and end tags <input></input>, but the self closing one <input />.

It doesn't make sense to allow the TextBox to have any content inside. We can decorate the class with the [ControlMarkupOptions(AllowContent = false)] attribute to tell DotVVM that there should be no content inside the <dot:TextBox> and </dot:TextBox> tags. If the user places anything there, DotVVM will display an error page.

We can override the RenderBeginTag method to render the self-closing tag, and the RenderEndTag to render nothings.

Between these two methods, the rendering pipeline calls also the RenderContents method which renders the contents between the <dot:TextBox> and </dot:TextBox> tags, but we won't have anything here thanks to the ControlMarkupOptions attribute.

protected override void RenderBeginTag(IHtmlWriter writer, IDotvvmRequestContext context)
    // TagName contains the value passed to the base constructor. 
    // We don't want to call base.RenderBeginTag here because it would render the begin tag and then the closing tag.
    // We want the self closing tag. 

protected override void RenderEndTag(IHtmlWriter writer, IDotvvmRequestContext context)
    // do nothing, we have already rendered the self-closing tag

Rendering HTML attributes

The most interesting is the AddAttributesToRender method.

The default implementation takes all HTML attributes that are not mapped to DotVVM properties, and add them to the HtmlWriter. So, if the user uses the following snippet, the default implementation of AddAttributesToRender will add the class, style and placeholder attributes to the HtmlWriter.

Remember that HtmlWriter requires to add all attributes before we call RenderBeginTag. After you render a tag, you cannot go back and add any attributes to it.

The custom attributes even support data-bindings, so you don't have to care about this. You just need to take care of the control properties.

<dot:TextBox Text="{value: FirstName}" style="border: none" class="txb1" placeholder="Enter first name" />

We need to declare the Text property first:

public string Text
    get { return Convert.ToString(GetValue(TextProperty)); }
    set { SetValue(TextProperty, value); }
public static readonly DotvvmProperty TextProperty =
    DotvvmProperty.Register<string, TextBox>(t => t.Text, "");

However, we should support two scenarios:

<dot:TextBox Text="{value: FirstName}" />
<dot:TextBox Text="Test" />

In the first case, we need to render data-bind="value: FirstName", in the second case we need to render value="Test".

We can solve this like this:

protected override void AddAttributesToRender(IHtmlWriter writer, IDotvvmRequestContext context)
    var textBinding = GetValueBinding(TextProperty);
    if (textBinding != null) 
        // the property contains binding - this will render data-bind="value: expression"
        writer.AddKnockoutDataBind("value", this, TextProperty);
        // render the value in the HTML
        writer.AddAttribute("value", Text);

    writer.AddAttribute("type", "text");
    base.AddAttributesToRender(writer, context);

Because this pattern is quite usual and in most controls you would have written the if statement checking the presence of binding and rendering the appropriate output, there is an overload of the AddKnockoutDataBind method with four arguments.

It allows you to specify a function which is called when the specified property doesn't contain a binding.

So we could simplify the function above like this:

protected override void AddAttributesToRender(IHtmlWriter writer, IDotvvmRequestContext context)
    writer.AddKnockoutDataBind("value", this, TextProperty, () => {
        writer.AddAttribute("value", Text);

    writer.AddAttribute("type", "text");
    base.AddAttributesToRender(writer, context);

Thanks to this, the syntax is much shorter.

Building Control Tree

Rendering HTML using the HtmlWriter class is good for simple controls. If the control is more complicated or can contain controls which invoke postbacks, you need to build a control tree inside the control.

This is especially handy if you need to compose a complex control of already existing ones.

This approach often results in a cleaner code, but rendering the HTML using the HtmlWriter is much faster than creating a control for the <div> element using new HtmlGenericControl("div").

You need to decide if rendering raw HTML is OK for your case, or if the control is more complex and you need to build a tree of child controls and manipulate with them somehow.

Composite Control

Let's create a control that is composed of two existing controls (TextBox and Literal) placed inside a div element.

We will create a new class which derives from HtmlGenericControl and renders a div:

public class TextBoxWithLabel : HtmlGenericControl
    public TextBoxWithLabel() : base("div")

Next, let's add the Text and LabelText properties.

Both of them are required. We can indicate this by using the MarkupOptions attribute. The attribute can also specify whether the property can contain a data-binding or a hard-coded value or both. By default, it can contain both of them.

[MarkupOptions(AllowHardCodedValue = false)]
public string Text
    get { return (string)GetValue(TextProperty); }
    set { SetValue(TextProperty, value); }
public static readonly DotvvmProperty TextProperty
    = DotvvmProperty.Register<string, TextBoxWithLabel>(c => c.Text, null);

[MarkupOptions(AllowBinding = false)]
public string LabelText
    get { return (string)GetValue(LabelTextProperty); }
    set { SetValue(LabelTextProperty, value); }
public static readonly DotvvmProperty LabelTextProperty
    = DotvvmProperty.Register<string, TextBoxWithLabel>(c => c.LabelText, null);

Child Controls

Similarly to the viewmodels, every control has lifecycle events OnInit, OnLoad and OnPreRender which follow the logic of the viewmodel Init, Load and PreRender events.

A basic rule is to create the controls as soon as possible. If you don't need data from the viewmodel (which are deserialized after the Init event), build the child controls in the OnInit phase. If you rely on values entered by the user, build the controls in the OnLoad phase.

protected override void OnInit(IDotvvmRequestContext context)
    var textBox = new TextBox();

    // copy the binding from the control's Text property to the TextBox.Text property
    textBox.SetBinding(TextBox.TextProperty, GetValueBinding(TextProperty));

    // we can set LabelText now, it cannot contain binding
    var label = new Literal(LabelText);

    // the controls are always the same, they don't depend on the viewmodel data, so we can use the OnInit event


After the Load phase, the commands are executed and the control tree must be complete at that moment. Moreover, the control tree must be equal as it was in the previous postback, otherwise DotVVM won't be able to find the control which triggered the postback. DotVVM validates postback information and if the control doesn't exist in the page, an error page shows up and the postback is not processed.

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